New additions are indicated by an asterisk (*). Last update: 25 June 2014.

Kindly send suggestions of HAB links you would like us to add, corrections for broken links, or corrections to the text that describes the link, to Anke Kremp (ISSHA's Secretary).

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Domoic acid and Pseudo-nitzschia References: Compiled by S.S. Bates; over 1,150 references in six categories, searchable by key word and with many with links to the publisher’s abstracts and pdf files (some open access)

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning and Domoic Acid: Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) food safety facts

Compare SEM montages of Pseudo-nitzschia species: "DMF Pseudo-nitzschiaComparator", Digital Microscopy Facility, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB. More species will be added later

SEM montage images of Pseudo-nitzschia species: Digital Microscopy Facility, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB. More information and images will be added later; for now, see SEM montages of: P. australisP. callianthaP. pungensP. multiseriesP. seriata and P. cf. turgidula. A zoom animation of a P. seriata valve, cycled through magnifications ranging from x1,200 to x12,000

Pseudo-nitzschia-lator software (now called dmfTable): Software to help identify different species of Pseudo-nitzschia, based on SEM morphometrics, by J.M. Ehrman and I. Kaczmarska; Digital Microscopy Facility, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB. pdf file of the paper, in the L&O Bulletin (2.7 MB). Note: the software is being updated to include several additional Pseudo-nitzschia species, and will be released later

Amnesic shellfish poisoning: domoic acid production by Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms. Aqua Info Aquaculture Notes 16, 4 p., by S.S. Bates (2004); a pdf file (1 MB)

ASP Biotoxins in British Columbia: Fisheries & Oceans Canada



Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning: Harmful Algae website, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI)

Hazard assessment of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning in New England: A PDF file of a PowerPoint presentation by M. Soledad Fuentes and Gary H. Wiksford, NOAA, Milford, CT

ECOHAB Pacific Northwest: A multi-disciplinary project to study the physiology, toxicology, ecology and oceanography of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species off the Pacific Northwest coast

Pseudo-nitzschia: Information on this genus compiled by Anne Thessen. The website contains additional information on other Pseudo-nitzschia species; from

Domoic Acid Poisoning: Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, Seattle, WA

Domoic Acid - A Major Concern to Washington State's Shellfish Lovers: Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife

Domoic Acid (ASP) in Shellfish: Washington State Dept. of Health

Domoic acid: Pacific razor clams and associated fisheries: an e-article (2004) in Fish & Wildlife Science, Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife

Anatomy of a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom on the Central Washington Coast: By J.C. Wekell, N. Adams, and V.L. Trainer (1999); a pdf file of a Powerpoint presentation

Domoic acid events on the Washington coast: By V.L. Trainer (2007); a pdf file of a Powerpoint presentation; NOAA, Seattle, WA

The Domoic Acid Story: University of Washington Olympic Natural Resources Center; pdf file

Washington Razor Clam Management: Setting for the 2010-2011 season. Background information in preparation for public meetings to obtain input regarding the season structure, bag limit and management of razor clams for the 2010-2011 season. Includes historical information about closures due to domoic acid and goals of the ORHAB project; pdf file, 59 p.

Domoic Acid and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning: A pdf file of a 2-page information leaflet, produced by Oregon State University and Oregon Sea Grant; note misspelling of “Amnesic” in the title of their publication

Marine Plankton Diatoms of the West Coast of North America: By E.E. Cupp (1943); University of California Press, Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, volume 5; link to an 8 MB pdf file. It shows some of the original drawings of species that were then called Nitzschia (starting on p. 202). The genus name has since changed to Pseudo-nitzschia; some species names have also changed.

Domoic Acid Toxicity: Activities of the Marine Mammal Center (Sausalito, CA) to study and rehabilitate mammals that have experienced domoic acid poisoning

Domoic acid and sick mammals: Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary, Santa Barbara, CA

Domoic Acid Information and History: Channel Islands Marine and Wildlife Institute, Santa Barbara, CA

Domoic acid: Student web page by Corinne Kohlen (Chem 377, for Dr. Christina Bailey); California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA

Mengelt, C. and B.B. Prézelin (2004). UV photophysiology & photoecology of two toxigenic diatom species Pseudo-nitzschia australis and multiseries. University of California, Santa Barbara, CA; pdf file of poster (1.3 MB)

Gorga, J.J., Mengelt, C., and B.B. Prezelin. (2002) In Situ Evidence of Ultraviolet Radiation Tolerance for the Toxigenic Diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis. 10th International Conference on Harmful Algae, St. Pete Beach, Florida; pdf file of poster(2.9 MB)

Mengelt, C. and B.B. Prezelin. (2002) Dark Survival and Subsequent Light Recovery for Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. 10th International Conference on Harmful Algae, St. Pete Beach, Florida; pdf file of poster (1.5 MB)

Hernandez, R., Mengelt, C., and B.B. Prezelin. (2003) Is there a link between eutrophication and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries blooms? Camp Symposium 2003. Irvine, California; Powerpoint file of poster (2.1 MB)

Hernandez, R. and B.B. Prezelin. (2002) The Relationship Between Increased Ultraviolet Radiation and the Growth Rate and Pigmentation of Pseudo-nitzchiaMultiseries Compared to Other Phytoplankton Species. Summer Research Colloquium, UC Santa Barbara; Powerpoint file of poster (2.1 MB)

Domoic acid and California sea lion deaths: Chris Scholin; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA

Environmental Sample Processor (ESP): Instrumentation for sampling Pseudo-nitzschia and domoic acid; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA

Tracking a toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis bloom: Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) Scientists Detect, Chase and Predict Phytoplankton Blooms in Monterey Bay - October 4–29, 2010

Pseudo-nitzschia: Information gathered by Jennifer Shin (1999); Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA

Understanding Domoic Acid and Toxic Diatom Blooms: B Mary Silver (2002); University of California, Santa Cruz, CA

Tea bags’ hanging from Santa Cruz wharf detect domoic acid: Raphael Kudela’s research; University of California, Santa Cruz, CA; a pdf file

Ferdin, M.E., R.G. Kvitek, C. Bretz, C.L. Powell, G.J. Doucette, M.W. Silver, and C.A. Scholin Emerita analoga (Stimpson) - Possible New Indicator Species for the Phycotoxin Domoic Acid in California Coastal Waters; pdf file of poster

Examining the Place and Role of Krill in Domoic Acid Poisoning: Slides by Sibel Bargu(while at the Univ. of California, Santa Cruz). The slides are excerpts from presentations given by participants at the DIALOG V Symposium, held Oct. 19-25, 2004.

Harmful Algal Bloom Research: ECOHAB research on the Stimulation of Toxic Blooms of the Diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. by Urban River Discharge into Southern California Coastal Waters; David Caron Lab, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Material Safety Data Sheet for Domoic Acid: Calbiochem-Novabiochem Corp., San Diego, CA

The Ecology of Pseudo-nitzschia in Monterey Bay, California (M.C. Villac; while at Texas A&M University)

Deadly Diatoms: Demo from "Oceans of Life" CD-ROM, University of California, San Diego

Domoic Acid Background: Orange County, CA; pdf file

Confirmation of Domoic acid in serum and urine: California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System; pdf file

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning: University of Miami NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center



Description of Domoic Acid and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP): FAO Food and Nutrition Papers; document also available as a pdf file

EFSA advice on Domoic Acid: European Food Safety Authority. PDF files of the Summary and of the Opinion

Toxic Diatoms: List of diatoms reported to produce domoic acid (although some strains are not toxic); In: IOC Taxonomic Reference List of Toxic Plankton Algae, website developed by Ø. Moestrup et al. (Copenhagen, Denmark)

Bresnan, E., S. Fraser, N. Smith, N. Brown, and A. Scott. Pseudo-nitzschia numbers and Amnesic Shellfish Toxins (AST) in shellfish at Loch Ewe, a sealoch in Northern Scotland; Fisheries Research Services Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; pdf file of poster

The Economic Impact of Algal Toxin Closures on Shellfish Dependent Communities on the Scottish Coast and Implications for the Sector's Future Structure: Final Report for Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department, EKOS, Ltd.; September 2002. Also available as a pdf file.

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning and Pseudo-nitzschia Blooms: Chapter 2, in: Harmful Algal Bloom Communities in Scottish Coastal Waters: Relationship to Fish Farming and Regional Comparisons - A Review, Paper 2006/3, by T.J. Smayda; written for the Scottish Government

Domoic acid accumulation in French shellfish related to a bloom of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries: By Zouher Amzi et al.; a pdf file of a poster

Domoic Acid: A Neurotoxin Which Causes Short-Term Memory Loss (in Czechoslovakian, with English summary)

Statement on Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning: Consideration of whether the current EU action limit for bivalve shellfish of 20 μg domoic acid/g tissue is adequate for the protection of public health; Scottish Parliament Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food Consumer Products and the Environment, November 2001; a pdf file

The genus Pseudo-nitzschia: Series in Marine Phytoplankton; Microscopy UK, by Rene van Wezel, UK

Foodstuffs - Determination of domoic acid in shellfish and finfish by RPHPLC using UV detection: A working document (2008); Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición, Spain; a pdf file

Standard Operating Procedure for determination of domoic acid (ASP toxins) in molluscs by UPLC-MS. Version 1 (February 2010). European Union Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins (EU-RL-MB), Vigo, Spain; a pdf file

Foodstuff - Determination of domoic acid in shellfish and finfish using RP-HPLC and UV detection. Version 2.2 (June 2008). CEN-TC 275 DIN

Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning: Fact sheet FS51-08.10, October 2011, by Mandy Pyke and Karen Green; Seafish, Edinburgh, Scotland. PDF file

Pseudo-nitzschia species: Light and electron microscope images. Nordic Microalgae website, Swedish Meterological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI)


South America

Sar, E. and M. Ferrario. 2002. Diatomeas toxigénicas presentes en la costa Argentina / Toxic diatoms present in the Argentine coast. IANIGLA. (pdf file)



Domoic Acid: Australian Research Network for Algal Toxins (ARNAT)


South Africa

Pseudo-nitzschia australis along the west coast of South Africa: “popular student article” by Claudio Marangoni; School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa


Purchase Domoic Acid

Ascent Scientific: Bristol, UK

BioVectra dcl: Charlottetown, PEI, Canada; this company was previously called Diagnostic Chemicals Ltd. Material Safety Data Sheet (PDF file)

Certified domoic acid calibration standards: Certified Rerence Materials (CRMs) program, NRC, Halifax, NS, Canada. Available standards: CRM-ASP-Mus-c, CRM-ASP-Mus-c, CRM-DA-f, RM-ASP-Mus. (Archived site)

Enzo Life Sciences: Farmingdale, NY, USA

Merck: Darmstadt, Germany

Sigma-Aldrich: USA

The Lab Depot, Inc.: Dawsonville, GA, USA

Tocris Bioscience: Ellisville, Missouri, USA

LGC Ltd: Domoic acid solutionMussel tissue domoic acid


Test Kits

MaxSignal® Domoic Acid (ASP) ELISA Test Kit: A competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of Domoic Acid in mussels, algae and water samples. Bioo Scientific Corp. (Austin, TX, USA)

Scotia Rapid Test for Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP): Scotia Rapid Testing (previously called Jellett Rapid Testing Ltd.) (Chester Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada)

Test kit for ASP toxins: ASP direct cELISA kit, Biosense Laboratories AS, Bergen, Norway. Also distributed by Abraxis (Warminster, PA, USA)

Domoic Acid ELISA Test Kit: Mercury Science, Inc., product DAK-36; an ELISA test kit; information (one-page PDF) from NOAA's Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research. Litaker et al. 2008. Rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of the algal toxin domoic acid. J. Shellfish Res. 27: 1301-1310. pdf file; 210 KB. YouTube videos: ELISA Test Kit (DAK-36); Shellfish Extraction KitDomoic Acid Field Test Kit (DAF-10)

Reveal for ASP: Neogen Europe Ltd. Lateral flow test that screens at 10 ppm; pdf file. Media reports: FISHupdateFOODManufacture

Domoic Acid ImmunoSep: Immunoaffinity chromatography column for specific extraction and concentration of domoic acid from different matrices, prior to instrumental analysis by HPLC-UV or HPLC-MS. Gentaur Europe, Belgium

Domoic Acid (ASP) ELISA Kit: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of domoic acid (ASP) in water and contaminated samples. Tulaoge International, Ltd. (Hong Kong)


Miscellaneous Sites

Domoic acid: General information from Toxipedia

Domoic acid: General information from Wikipedia

Domoic acid: Detailed biochemical, toxicological and clinical information compiled by International Programme on Chemical Safety

Domoic acid: Chemical information from DrugBank

Domoic acid: Chemical and structural information from PubChem

Domoic acid information: - shows information and links to other sources of information

Domoic Acid ImmunoSepTM: Columns for sample preparation procedures for domoic acid and its isomers; pdf file

Patent application: Method of Extracting Domoic Acid by Selective Adsorption Using a Halogenated Carboxylic Acid Derivative, by Piletsky et al.

Pseudo-nitzschia: General information from Wikipedia