New additions are indicated by an asterisk (*). Last update: 2 October 2012.

Kindly send suggestions of HAB links you would like us to add, corrections for broken links, or corrections to the text that describes the link, to Anke Kremp (ISSHA's Secretary).

Biological source of azaspiracid toxins: Link to paper (Europ. J. Phycol. 2009, 44: 63-79, DOI 10.1080/09670260802578534) showing that Azadinium spinosum gen. et sp. nov., not Protoperidinium crassipes (as indicated by James et al. 2003; Toxicon 41: 145-151) is the primary producer of azaspiracid toxins. Reason for the initial confusion of producer organisms was most likely the heterotrophic nature of P. crassipes, as indicated in the recent review paper (see below).

Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts (2008) by M.J. Twiner, N. Rehmann, P. Hess, and G.J. Doucette Mar. Drugs 6: 39-72; Open Access PDF file (566 KB)

Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review: By D.-Z. Wang (2008) Mar. Drugs 6: 349-371; Open Access PDF file (521 KB); discusses AZP

Azaspiracid poisoning (AZP) toxins in shellfish: Toxicological and health considerations: By A. Fureya, S. O'Doherty, K. O'Callaghan, M. Lehane, and K.J. James (2010).

Description of Azaspiracid Toxins: FAO Food and Nutrition Papers

Azaspiracid References: A bibliography of azaspiracid publications (Philipp Hess; Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland; and Terry McMahon; Marine Institute, Dublin, Ireland)

Azaspiracid Toxin Certified Reference Materials: CRM-AZA1 standard from the National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Certified Reference Materials Program, Halifax, NS, Canada

EFSA advice on the Azaspiracid Group: European Food Safety Authority. PDF files of the Summary and of the Opinion

Azaspiracid Reference Materials: Certified Rerence Materials (CRMs) program, NRC, Halifax, NS, Canada