New additions are indicated by an asterisk (*). Last update: 26 March 2013.

Kindly send suggestions of HAB links you would like us to add, corrections for broken links, or corrections to the text that describes the link, to Anke Kremp (ISSHA's Secretary).


Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning: Harmful Algae Website; Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, USA

Diarrhoeic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP): Food Safety Watch. Richard Lawley - November 2008

Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review: by D.-Z. Wang (2008) Mar. Drugs 6: 349-371; Open Access PDF file (521 KB); discusses DSP

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning: Information from Lora E. Fleming, NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, Oceans and Human Health Center at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School, FL, USA

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison: NOAA, Northwest Science Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA, USA

Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning: Marine & Freshwater Biomedical Science Center; Oceans and Human Health Center at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School, Miami, FL, USA

DSP: University of Miami NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center

Harmful algal blooms species in thin layers (HABIT): EU project to study Dinophysis in thin layers; pdf file of poster on the project; National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland

Description of DSP Toxins: FAO Food and Nutrition Papers. Note: this section includes pectenotoxins and yessotoxins, but these are incorrectly grouped with the DSP toxins; also, the structure of DTX2 is incorrect (it was revised in 2007; see the Larsen et al. 2007 paper, below: DOI 10.1021/tx700016m)

Larsen, K., D. Petersen, A.L. Wilkins, I.A. Samdal, M. Sandvik, T. Rundberget, D. Goldstone, V. Arcus, P. Hovgaard, F. Rise, N. Rehmann, P. Hess, and C.O. Miles. 2007. Clarification of the C-35 stereochemistries of dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 and is consequences for binding to protein phosphatase. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 20: 868-875. (Publisher's abstract)

Binding of DSP toxins to Protein Phosphatase: QuickTime movie of how OA, DTX1 and DTX2 bind to PP2A. Link to above paper in Chem. Res. Toxicol., 2007, 20: 868–875, DOI 10.1021/tx700016m

Huhn, J., P.D. Jeffrey, K. Larsen, T. Rundberget, F. Rise, N.R. Cox, V. Arcus, Y. Shi, and C.O. Miles. 2009. A structural basis for the reduced toxicity of dinophysistoxin-2. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 22: 1782-1786. (Publisher's abstract)

EFSA advice on the Okadaic Acid and Analogues: European Food Safety Authority. PDF files of the Summary and of the Opinion

Dinophysis spp. PCR detection Kit: DIATHEVA, Fano, Italy

DSP Toxin Certified Reference Materials: Certified Rerence Materials (CRMs) program, NRC, Halifax, NS, Canada

MaxSignal® Okadaic Acid (DSP) ELISA Test Kit A competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative analysis of okadaic acid in mussels and water samples. Bioo Scientific Corp.(Austin, TX, USA)

Okadaic Acid (DSP) ELISA Test Kit: Sold by Abraxis (Warminster, PA, USA)

Rapid test for DSP: Sold by Jellett Rapid Testing Ltd. (Chester Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada)

ELISA kit for quantitation of Okadaic Acid: Sold by Erfa Biotech (Val-Morin, Quebec, Canada). The company also produces Mouse monoclonal antibody to okadaic acid and Mouse syngeneic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody to okadaic acid

Okadaic Acid (DSP) ELISA test kit: Sold by Biosense Laboratories AS (Bergen, Norway)

Okadaic Acid (DSP) ELISA Test Kit: Sold by Ancon Biotech (Guangzhou, China)